Star Wars Wikipedia


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Star Wars Wikipedia

Jedipedia ist eine freie Star Wars-Enzyklopädie, die von jedem bearbeitet werden kann. Hier findet man alles zu Filmen, Serien, Büchern und mehr. Star Wars (Domark). Aus CWiki. Zur Navigation springenZur Suche springen. Star Wars (Domark). Das neue Buch ist seit April erhältlich und räumt mit dem Star Wars-Kanon auf.

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Star Wars (englisch für Sternkriege) ist ein Film-Franchise, dessen Geschichte mit dem erschienenen Kinofilm Krieg der Sterne (Originaltitel: Star Wars). Kategorie:Star-Wars-Film. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Einklappen. Kategoriewartung. Willkommen in der Jedipedia, dem deutschen Wiki rund um Star Wars! Von den neuen und alten Filmen bis hin zu The Clone Wars und Rebels! Jedipedia ist eine freie Star Wars-Enzyklopädie, die von jedem bearbeitet werden kann. Hier findet man alles zu Filmen, Serien, Büchern und mehr. Star Wars ist ein Themenbereich von LEGO. Es war das erste Lizenzgeschäft, das sowohl Lego als. In einer weit, weit entfernten Galaxie namens Wikipedia kämpfen Sprach-Ritter um die Macht des Wortes. Wo Star-Wars-Fans auf Wikipedianer. iphone5 5s Case, Star Wars - Wikipedia phone case Black for iphone5 5s. Für eine größere Ansicht klicken Sie auf das Bild. VIDEOS; °-ANSICHT; BILDER​.

Star Wars Wikipedia

Star Wars ist ein Themenbereich von LEGO. Es war das erste Lizenzgeschäft, das sowohl Lego als. Star Wars (Domark). Aus CWiki. Zur Navigation springenZur Suche springen. Star Wars (Domark). In einer weit, weit entfernten Galaxie namens Wikipedia kämpfen Sprach-Ritter um die Macht des Wortes. Wo Star-Wars-Fans auf Wikipedianer. Mai zum Star Wars Day. Spiel Nr. Euro; 94,5 Mio. Märzabgerufen am 8. Dieser Kampf spiegelt sich im Kleiner Eisbär Ilmenau zwischen demokratisch orientierten und tyrannischen Figuren wider. Oktober In: insidekino.

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Retrieved October 2, The Guardian. Star Wars and History. Retrieved March 25, April 21, Archived from the original on June 5, Retrieved December 13, The people give their democracy to a dictator, whether it's Julius Caesar or Napoleon or Adolf Hitler.

Ultimately, the general population goes along with the idea That's the issue I've been exploring: how did the Republic turn into the Empire? University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.

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Retrieved May 10, Guardian Media Group. July 16, Business Wire. April 23, Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. Princess Leia , secretly one of the Rebellion's leaders, has obtained its schematics, but her starship is intercepted by an Imperial Star Destroyer under the command of the ruthless Sith Lord Darth Vader , an agent to the Empire.

Before she is captured, Leia hides the plans in the memory of astromech droid R2-D2 , who, along with protocol droid C-3PO , flees in an escape pod to the desert planet Tatooine.

The droids are captured by Jawa traders, who sell them to moisture farmers Owen and Beru Lars and their nephew Luke Skywalker.

While cleaning R2-D2 , Luke accidentally triggers part of a holographic recording of Leia, in which she requests help from Obi-Wan Kenobi.

He asks his uncle if he knows anything, but his uncle curtly drops the subject. Ben, who reveals his true name to be Obi-Wan, tells Luke of his days as a Jedi Knight , former peacekeepers of the Galactic Republic who derived their power from an energy field called the Force until they were wiped out by the Galactic Empire.

Contrary to what his uncle has told him, Luke learns that his father fought alongside Obi-Wan as a Jedi Knight until Vader, a former pupil of Obi-Wan's, turned to the dark side of the Force and murdered him.

Obi-Wan presents Luke with his father's old weapon, a lightsaber. R2-D2 plays Leia's message for Obi-Wan, in which she begs him to take the Death Star plans to her home planet of Alderaan and give them to her father for analysis.

Obi-Wan invites Luke to accompany him to Alderaan and learn the ways of the Force, but Luke declines, saying his aunt and uncle need him. Returning home, however, he finds Imperial stormtroopers have killed his aunt and uncle and destroyed their farm in their search for the droids, leaving Luke no choice but to accept Obi-Wan's invitation.

They travel to a cantina in Mos Eisley , where they hire smuggler Han Solo to transport them. Han is intercepted by Greedo , a bounty hunter working for local mobster Jabba the Hutt , to whom Han owes money; the confrontation ends with Han killing Greedo.

Luke discovers that Leia is imprisoned on the Death Star and scheduled to be executed, and rescues her with the help of Han and Chewbacca in a swashbuckling series of escapes.

His task accomplished, Obi-Wan sees that the others need a distraction to board the Falcon , and sacrifices himself in a lightsaber duel with Darth Vader.

They depart the hangar but are caught up by four Imperial TIE starfighters which they fight off. Using a tracking beacon placed on the Falcon , the Imperials follow the rebels to the hidden base on Yavin 4.

Leia's schematics show that the Death Star might be destroyed by firing torpedoes into a two-meter-wide thermal exhaust port that directly leads into its reactor, triggering a chain reaction.

Han collects a reward for his role in Leia's rescue, intending to leave and repay Jabba. Luke joins the Rebel squadron in a desperate attack against the approaching Death Star.

In the ensuing battle, the Rebels suffer heavy losses in several unsuccessful runs. Vader leads a squadron of TIE fighters and prepares to attack Luke's X-wing , but Han returns and attacks the Imperial fighters, sending Vader spiraling into space.

Guided by Obi-Wan's spirit , Luke turns off his targeting computer and uses the Force to guide the torpedoes into the exhaust port.

The Death Star explodes just before it can fire on the Rebel base, killing Tarkin and the Imperial troops onboard.

In a triumphant ceremony at the base, Leia awards Luke and Han medals for their heroism. I sat down on one of the sofas, waiting for George.

Door opened, and George walked in with Gary behind him. So, naturally, what did I do? I'm raised in England. Soon as someone comes in through the door, I stand up.

George goes "Hmm [looked up]". Virtually turned to Gary, and said "I think we've found him". Michael Leader plays a minor role as a Stormtrooper known for accidentally hitting his helmet against a door.

Lucas had the idea for a space-fantasy film in , after he completed directing his first full-length feature, THX ; [33] however, he has said that he had the idea long before then.

I especially loved the Flash Gordon serials Of course I realize now how crude and badly done they were I wanted to make a Flash Gordon movie, with all the trimmings, but I couldn't obtain the rights to the characters.

So I began researching and went right back and found where Alex Raymond who had done the original Flash Gordon comic strips in newspapers had got his idea from.

I discovered that he'd got his inspiration from the works of Edgar Rice Burroughs author of Tarzan and especially from his John Carter of Mars series books.

I read through that series, then found that what had sparked Burroughs off was a science fantasy called Gulliver on Mars , written by Edwin Arnold and published in That was the first story in this genre that I have been able to trace.

Jules Verne had got pretty close, I suppose, but he never had a hero battling against space creatures or having adventures on another planet.

A whole new genre developed from that idea. Director Francis Ford Coppola , who accompanied Lucas in trying to buy the Flash Gordon rights, recounted in "[George] was very depressed because he had just come back and they wouldn't sell him Flash Gordon.

And he says, 'Well, I'll just invent my own. Lucas began writing in January , "eight hours a day, five days a week", [33] by taking small notes, inventing odd names and assigning them possible characterizations.

Lucas would discard many of these by the time the final script was written, but he included several names and places in the final script or its sequels.

He used these initial names and ideas to compile a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills , which told the tale of the training of apprentice CJ Thorpe as a " Jedi -Bendu" space commando by the legendary Mace Windy.

After United Artists declined to budget the film, Lucas and producer Gary Kurtz presented the film treatment to Universal Pictures , the studio that financed American Graffiti ; however, it rejected its options for the film because the concept was "a little strange", and it said that Lucas should follow American Graffiti with more consequential themes.

Lucas said, "I've always been an outsider to Hollywood types. They think I do weirdo films. We had Westerns, pirate movies, all kinds of great things.

Where are the romance, the adventure, and the fun that used to be in practically every movie made? There were also concerns regarding the project's potentially high budget.

Lucas and Kurtz, in pitching the film, said that it would be "low-budget, Roger Corman style, and the budget was never going to be more than—well, originally we had proposed about 8 million, it ended up being about Both of those figures are very low budget by Hollywood standards at the time.

Although Ladd did not grasp the technical side of the project, he believed that Lucas was talented. Lucas later stated that Ladd "invested in me, he did not invest in the movie.

For Lucas, this deal protected Star Wars ' s unwritten segments and most of the merchandising profits. Since commencing his writing process in January , Lucas had done "various rewrites in the evenings after the day's work.

It's always been what you might call a good idea in search of a story. He changed Starkiller to an adolescent boy, and he shifted the general into a supporting role as a member of a family of dwarfs.

He based Chewbacca on his Alaskan Malamute dog, Indiana whom he would later use as namesake for his character Indiana Jones , who often acted as the director's "co-pilot" by sitting in the passenger seat of his car.

Lucas began researching the science-fiction genre by watching films and reading books and comics. However, in this draft, the father is a hero who is still alive at the start of the film.

Annikin became Luke's father, a wise Jedi knight. For example, Luke had several brothers, as well as his father, who appears in a minor role at the end of the film.

This version ended with another text crawl, previewing the next story in the series. This draft was also the first to introduce the concept of a Jedi turning to the dark side: the draft included a historical Jedi who was the first to ever fall to the dark side, and then trained the Sith to use it.

Lucas hired conceptual artist Ralph McQuarrie to create paintings of certain scenes, several of which Lucas included with his screenplay when he delivered it to 20th Century-Fox.

This third draft had most of the elements of the final plot, with only some differences in the characters and settings.

The draft characterized Luke as an only child, with his father already dead, replacing him with a substitute named Ben Kenobi.

Lucas worked with his friends Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck to revise the fourth draft into the final pre-production script.

Lucas finished writing his script in March , when the crew started filming. He said, "What finally emerged through the many drafts of the script has obviously been influenced by science-fiction and action-adventure I've read and seen.

And I've seen a lot of it. I'm trying to make a classic sort of genre picture, a classic space fantasy in which all the influences are working together.

There are certain traditional aspects of the genre I wanted to keep and help perpetuate in Star Wars. For the film's opening crawl , Lucas originally wrote a composition consisting of six paragraphs with four sentences each.

It's like a poem. It goes on forever. It's gibberish. Let me sit down and write this for you. George Lucas recruited many conceptual designers, including Colin Cantwell, who worked on A Space Odyssey , to conceptualize the initial spacecraft models; Alex Tavoularis to create the preliminary conceptual storyboard sketches of early scripts; and Ralph McQuarrie to visualize the characters, costumes, props and scenery.

After McQuarrie's drawings for Lucas's colleagues Hal Barwood and Matthew Robbins who were collaborating for a film caught his interest, Lucas met with McQuarrie to discuss his plans for the untitled space fantasy film he wanted to make.

Two years later, after completing American Graffiti , Lucas approached McQuarrie and asked him if he would be interested "in doing something for Star Wars.

The film was ambitious as Lucas wanted to create fresh prop prototypes and sets based on McQuarrie's paintings that had never been realized before in science fiction films.

He commissioned production designers John Barry and Roger Christian , who were working on the sets of the film Lucky Lady when Lucas first approached them, to work on the production sets.

Christian recounted in "George came to the set I was doing, it was an old salt factory design and he helped me shovel salt, just like two students in plaid shirts and sneakers.

And we spoke and he looked at the set and couldn't believe it wasn't real. Christian said that Lucas "didn't want anything [in Star Wars ] to stand out, he wanted it [to look] all real and used.

And I said, 'Finally somebody's doing it the right way. Lucas described a "used future" concept to the production designers in which all devices, ships, and buildings looked aged and dirty.

Barry said that the director "wants to make it look like it's shot on location on your average everyday Death Star or Mos Eisley Spaceport or local cantina.

Nothing was new. George was going right against that. The designers started working with the director before Star Wars was approved by 20th Century-Fox.

As they could not afford to dress the sets, Christian was forced to use unconventional methods and materials to achieve the desired look.

He suggested that Lucas use scrap in making the dressings, and the director agreed. I used to do it with models when I was a kid.

I'd stick things on them and we'd make things look old. According to Christian, the Millennium Falcon set was the most difficult to build.

Christian wanted the interior of the Falcon to look like that of a submarine. The garbage compactor set "was also pretty hard, because I knew I had actors in there and the walls had to come in, and they had to be in dirty water and I had to get stuff that would be light enough so it wouldn't hurt them but also not bobbing around.

The massive rebel hangar set was housed at a second sound stage at Shepperton Studios ; the stage was the largest in Europe at the time.

Most of the visual effects used pioneering digital motion control photography developed by John Dykstra and his team, which created the illusion of size by employing small models and slowly moving cameras.

George Lucas tried "to get a cohesive reality" for his feature. However, since the film is a fairy tale , as he had described, "I still wanted it to have an ethereal quality, yet be well composed and, also, have an alien look.

To achieve this, he hired the British cinematographer Gilbert Taylor. However, he eventually withdrew to work on the Vincente Minnelli -directed A Matter of Time instead, which "really annoy[ed]" Kurtz.

Strangelove and A Hard Day's Night both On his decision, Lucas said: "I thought they were good, eccentrically photographed pictures with a strong documentary flavor.

Taylor said that Lucas, who was consumed by the details of the complicated production, "avoided all meetings and contact with me from day one, so I read the extra-long script many times and made my own decisions as to how I would shoot the picture.

During production, Lucas and Taylor—whom Kurtz called "old-school" and "crotchety" [68] —had disputes over filming. His lighting suggestions were rejected by Taylor, who believed that Lucas was overstepping his boundaries by giving specific instructions, sometimes even moving lights and cameras himself.

Taylor refused to use the soft-focus lenses and gauze Lucas wanted after Fox executives complained about the look. Originally, Lucas envisioned the planet of Tatooine , where much of the film would take place, as a jungle planet.

Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines to scout locations; however, because of the idea of spending months filming in the jungle would make Lucas "itchy", the director refined his vision and made Tatooine a desert planet instead.

When principal photography began on March 22, , in the Tunisian desert for the scenes on Tatooine, the project faced several problems.

Taylor said, "you couldn't really see where the land ended and the sky began. It was all a gray mess, and the robots were just a blur.

But George saw it differently, so we tried using nets and other diffusion. He asked to set up one shot on the robots with a mm, and the sand and sky just mushed together.

I told him it wouldn't work, but he said that was the way he wanted to do the entire film, all diffused.

Filming began in Chott el Djerid , while a construction crew in Tozeur took eight weeks to transform the desert into the desired setting.

Kenny Baker , who portrayed R2-D2, said: "I was incredibly grateful each time an [R2] would actually work right.

Lucas chose Hotel Sidi Driss, which is larger than the typical underground dwellings, to shoot the interior of Luke's homestead.

After two and a half weeks of filming in Tunisia, [74] production moved to Elstree Studios , near London. It was also the only studio of its kind in Britain or America that could cater for nine large stages at the same time and allow the company complete freedom to use its own personnel.

Most of the crew considered the project a "children's film", rarely took their work seriously, and often found it unintentionally humorous.

Harrison Ford found it strange that "there's a princess with weird buns in her hair", and called Chewbacca a "giant in a monkey suit.

This would result in "a 'cut-out' system of panel lighting", with quartz lamps that could be placed in the holes in the walls, ceiling and floors.

His idea was supported by the Fox studio, which agreed that "we couldn't have this ' black hole of Calcutta.

Lucas commissioned computer programmer Larry Cuba to create the animated Death Star plans shown at the rebel base on Yavin 4. This was written with the GRASS programming language , exported to a Vector General monitor and filmed on 35 mm to be rear-projected on the set.

It is the only computer animation in the original version of the film. Lucas selected the location as a potential filming site after seeing a poster of it hanging at a travel agency while he was filming in Britain.

This inspired him to send a film crew to Guatemala in March to shoot scenes. While filming in Tikal, the crew paid locals with a six pack of beer to watch over the camera equipment for several days.

While shooting, Lucas rarely spoke to the actors, who believed that he expected too much of them while providing little direction. His directions to the actors usually consisted of the words "faster" and "more intense".

A lot of actors don't mind—they don't care, they just get on with it. But some actors really need a lot of pampering and a lot of feedback, and if they don't get it, they get paranoid that they might not be doing a good job.

Ladd offered Lucas some of the only support from the studio; he dealt with scrutiny from board members over the rising budget and complex screenplay drafts.

Kurtz said that "it came out to be like 9. Under the new system, the project met the studio's deadline. During production, the cast attempted to make Lucas laugh or smile, as he often appeared depressed.

At one point, the project became so demanding that Lucas was diagnosed with hypertension and exhaustion and was warned to reduce his stress level.

Moreover, Mark Hamill 's car accident left his face visibly scarred, which restricted re-shoots. Star Wars was originally slated for release on Christmas ; however, its production delays pushed the film's release to mid When Lucas watched Jympson's rough cut for the first time, he disliked what he saw.

Rinzler wrote that "Jympson's selection of takes was questionable, and he seemed to be having trouble doing match-cuts. He commented: "Unfortunately it didn't work out.

It's very hard when you are hiring people to know if they are going to mesh with you and if you are going to get what you want.

In the end, I don't think he fully understood the movie and what I was trying to do. I shoot in a very peculiar way, in a documentary style, and it takes a lot of hard editing to make it work.

Richard Chew considered the film to have been cut in a slow, by-the-book manner: scenes were played out in master shots that flowed into close-up coverage.

He found that the pace was dictated by the actors instead of the cuts. Hirsch and Chew worked on two reels simultaneously. Jympson's original assembly contained a large amount of footage which differed from the final cut of the film, including several alternate takes and a number of scenes which were subsequently deleted to improve the narrative pace.

The most significant material cut was a series of scenes from the first part of the film which introduced Luke Skywalker.

These early scenes, set in Anchorhead on the planet Tatooine, presented the audience with Luke's everyday life among his friends as it is affected by the space battle above the planet; they also introduced the character of Biggs Darklighter , Luke's closest friend who departs to join the rebellion.

There were too many story lines to keep straight: the robots and the Princess, Vader, Luke. So we simplified it by taking out Luke and Biggs.

As a result, the film was more "leisurely paced". After viewing a rough cut, Alan Ladd likened the early Anchorhead scenes to " American Graffiti in outer space.

The company had spent half of its budget on four shots that Lucas deemed unacceptable. Lucas inspired ILM by editing together aerial dogfights from old war films, which enhanced the pacing of the scenes.

During the chaos of production and post-production, the team made decisions about character voicing and sound effects. Sound designer Ben Burtt had created a library of sounds that Lucas referred to as an "organic soundtrack.

The lightsaber sound effect was developed by Burtt as a combination of the hum of idling interlock motors in aged movie projectors and interference caused by a television set on a shieldless microphone.

Burtt discovered the latter accidentally as he was looking for a buzzing, sparking sound to add to the projector-motor hum.

Lucas and Burtt created the robotic voice of R2-D2 by filtering their voices through an electronic synthesizer.

Darth Vader's breathing was achieved by Burtt breathing through the mask of a scuba regulator implanted with a microphone.

In February , Lucas screened an early cut of the film for Fox executives, several director friends, along with Roy Thomas and Howard Chaykin of Marvel Comics who were preparing a Star Wars comic book.

The cut had a different crawl from the finished version and used Prowse's voice for Darth Vader. It also lacked most special effects; hand-drawn arrows took the place of blaster beams, and when the Millennium Falcon fought TIE fighters , the film cut to footage of World War II dogfights.

Spielberg, who said he was the only person in the audience to have enjoyed the film, believed that the lack of enthusiasm was due to the absence of finished special effects.

Lucas later said that the group was honest and seemed bemused by the film. In contrast, Ladd and the other studio executives loved the film; Gareth Wigan told Lucas: "This is the greatest film I've ever seen" and cried during the screening.

Lucas found the experience shocking and rewarding, having never gained any approval from studio executives before. Lucas had planned to rework a confrontation scene between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt in Mos Eisley Spaceport by compositing a stop-motion animated model of Jabba to replace the actor Declan Mulholland , but with time and money running out, Lucas reluctantly decided to cut the scene entirely.

The sequence was later re-instated in the Special Edition with a computer-generated version of Jabba. Williams had worked with Spielberg on the film Jaws , for which he won an Academy Award.

Lucas believed that the film would portray visually foreign worlds, but that the musical score would give the audience an emotional familiarity; he wanted a grand musical sound for Star Wars , with leitmotifs to provide distinction.

Therefore, he assembled his favorite orchestral pieces for the soundtrack, until Williams convinced him that an original score would be unique and more unified.

However, a few of Williams's pieces were influenced by the tracks given to him by Lucas: the "Main Title Theme" was inspired by the theme from the film Kings Row , scored by Erich Wolfgang Korngold ; [93] and the track "Dune Sea of Tatooine" drew from the soundtrack of Bicycle Thieves , scored by Alessandro Cicognini.

The American Film Institute 's list of best film scores ranks the Star Wars soundtrack at number one. According to Lucas, different concepts of the film were inspired by numerous sources, such as Beowulf and King Arthur for the origins of myth and religion.

The influence of The Hidden Fortress can be seen in the relationship between C-3PO and R2-D2, which evolved from the two bickering peasants, Tahei and Matashichi, and a Japanese family crest seen in the earlier film is similar to the Imperial Crest.

Star Wars also borrows heavily from another Kurosawa film, Yojimbo There are also thematic parallels, including the freedom fight by a rebel army against an empire, and politicians who meddle behind the scenes.

Tatooine is similar to the desert planet of Arrakis from Frank Herbert 's Dune series. Arrakis is the only known source of a longevity spice ; Star Wars makes references to spice in "the spice mines of Kessel", and a spice freighter.

In passing, Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru are "moisture farmers"; in Dune , dew collectors are used by Fremen to "provide a small but reliable source of water.

The Death Star assault scene was modeled after the World War II film The Dam Busters , in which Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers fly along heavily defended reservoirs and aim bouncing bombs at dams, in order to cripple the heavy industry of Germany's Ruhr region.

In addition, the sequence was partially inspired by the climax of the film Squadron , directed by Walter Grauman , [] in which RAF de Havilland Mosquitos attack a German heavy water plant by flying down a narrow fjord to drop special bombs at a precise point, while avoiding anti-aircraft guns and German fighters.

Clips from both films were included in Lucas's temporary dogfight footage version of the sequence.

The opening shot of Star Wars , in which a detailed spaceship fills the screen overhead, is a reference to the scene introducing the interplanetary spacecraft Discovery One in Stanley Kubrick 's seminal film A Space Odyssey.

The earlier big-budget science fiction film influenced the look of Star Wars in many other ways, including the use of EVA pods and hexagonal corridors.

The Death Star has a docking bay reminiscent of the one on the orbiting space station in While the film was in production, a logo was commissioned from Dan Perri , a title sequence designer who had worked on the titles for films such as The Exorcist and Taxi Driver This logo design was originally conceived to follow the same perspective as the film's opening crawl.

In the end, Perri's logo was not used for the film's opening title sequence, although it was used widely on pre-release print advertising and on cinema marquees.

The logotype eventually selected for on-screen use originated in a promotional brochure that was distributed by Fox to cinema owners in This brochure was designed by Suzy Rice , a young art director at the Los Angeles advertising agency Seiniger Advertising.

On a visit to ILM in Van Nuys, Rice was instructed by Lucas to produce a logo that would intimidate the viewer, and he reportedly asked for the logo to appear "very fascist " in style.

Rice's response to her brief was to use an outlined, modified Helvetica Black. Lucas signed off on the brochure in between takes while filming inserts for the Mos Eisley Cantina scene.

Gary Kurtz was impressed with Rice's logo and selected it over Perri's design for the film's opening titles, after modifying the letter W to flatten the pointed tips originally designed by Rice.

This finalized the design of one of the most recognizable logos in cinema design, although Rice's contribution was not credited in the film.

For the US release in , 20th Century-Fox commissioned a promotional film poster from the advertising agency Smolen, Smith and Connolly.

They used the freelance artist Tom Jung who was given the brief of "good over evil. Some Fox executives considered this poster "too dark" and commissioned the Brothers Hildebrandt , a pair of well-known fantasy artists , to rework the poster for the UK release.

Fox and Lucasfilm subsequently decided that they wanted to promote the new film with a less stylized and more realistic depiction of the lead characters.

Producer Gary Kurtz turned to the film poster artist Tom Chantrell , who was already well known for his prolific work for Hammer horror films , and commissioned a new version.

Charles Lippincott was the marketing director for Star Wars. As 20th Century-Fox gave little support for marketing beyond licensing T-shirts and posters, Lippincott was forced to look elsewhere.

He secured deals with Marvel Comics for a comic book adaptation, and with Del Rey Books for a novelization. A fan of science fiction, he used his contacts to promote the film at the San Diego Comic-Con and elsewhere within science-fiction fandom.

While initially only being released in a limited theatrical run, Star Wars was an unprecedented success for 20th Century-Fox, soon becoming a blockbuster hit and expanding to a much wider release.

It would eventually see many theatrical and home video re-releases. However, fewer than 40 theaters ordered the film to be shown.

In response, the studio demanded that theaters order Star Wars if they wanted the eagerly anticipated The Other Side of Midnight based on Sidney Sheldon 's novel by the same name.

Star Wars debuted on Wednesday, May 25, , in fewer than 32 theaters, and eight more on Thursday and Friday. Kurtz said in , "That would be laughable today.

Spielberg disagreed, and believed Star Wars would be the bigger hit. Lucas proposed they trade 2. Fox initially had doubts if Star Wars would emerge successful.

While Fox requested Mann's Chinese Theatre , the studio promised that the film only needed two weeks.

Having forgotten that the film would open that day, [] he spent most of Wednesday in a sound studio in Los Angeles.

When Lucas went out for lunch with Marcia, they encountered a long line of people along the sidewalks leading to Mann's Chinese Theatre, waiting to see Star Wars.

Francis Ford Coppola , who needed money to finish Apocalypse Now , sent a telegram to Lucas's hotel asking for funding.

The film was a huge success for 20th Century-Fox, and was credited for reinvigorating the company. Within three weeks of the film's release, the studio's stock price had doubled to a record high.

After the screening, the audience was silent, leading him to fear that the film would be unsuccessful. Ladd was reassured by his local contacts that this was a positive reaction considering that in Japan, silence was the greatest honor to a film, and the subsequent strong box office returns confirmed its popularity.

After two weeks William Friedkin 's Sorcerer replaced Star Wars at Mann's Chinese Theatre because of contractual obligations; Mann Theatres moved the film to a less-prestigious location after quickly renovating it.

News reports of the film's popularity in America caused long lines to form at the two London theaters that first offered the film; it became available in 12 large cities in January , and other London theaters in February.

Star Wars was re-released theatrically in , , and , [] with the subtitle Episode IV — A New Hope being added in The film was digitally remastered with some altered scenes in for a theatrical rerelease, dubbed the "Special Edition.

In , Lucas announced that all six previously released Star Wars films would be scanned and transferred to 3D for a theatrical release, but only 3D versions of the prequel trilogy were completed before the franchise was sold to Disney in The texts Episode IV and A New Hope were first published on a title page for the film's script in the book The Art of Star Wars , [a] and added to the opening crawl in re-releases.

The retronymic inclusion of subtitles brought the film into line with the introduction to its sequel, The Empire Strikes Back , which was released in bearing the designation "Episode V".

This version of the film runs minutes. The Special Edition contains visual shots and scenes that were unachievable in the original release due to financial, technological, and time constraints; one such scene involves a meeting between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt.

Star Wars required extensive recovery of misplaced footage and restoration of the whole film before Lucas's Special Edition modifications could be attempted.

It was discovered that in addition to the negative motion picture stocks commonly used on feature films, Lucas had also used Color Reversal Internegative CRI film, a reversal stock subsequently discontinued by Kodak.

CRI proved to deteriorate faster than negative stocks did, although it theoretically was of higher quality, as it saved two generations an interpositive followed by an internegative , where employed.

Because of this, the entire composited negative had to be disassembled, and the CRI portions cleaned separately from the negative portions.

Once the cleaning was complete, the film was scanned into the computer for restoration. In many cases, entire scenes had to be reconstructed from their individual elements.

Digital compositing technology allowed the restorers to correct for problems such as misalignment of mattes and "blue-spill. By , this copy had been transferred to a 2K scan, now available to be viewed by appointment.

The final issue of the original theatrical release pre-Special Edition to VHS format occurred in , as part of "Last Chance to Own the Original" campaign, available as part of a trilogy set and as a standalone purchase.

The films were digitally restored and remastered, and more changes were made by Lucas. The trilogy was re-released on separate two-disc limited edition DVD sets from September 12 to December 31, , and again in a limited edition tin box set on November 4, ; [] the original versions of the films were added as bonus material.

The release was met with criticism as the unaltered versions were from the non- anamorphic LaserDisc masters and were not re-transferred using modern video standards.

The transfer led to problems with colors and digital image jarring. All six Star Wars films were released by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment on Blu-ray Disc on September 16, in three different editions, with A New Hope available in both a box set of the original trilogy [] [] and with all six films on Star Wars: The Complete Saga , which includes nine discs and over 40 hours of special features.

New changes were made to the films, provoking mixed responses. Fox released A New Hope for digital download on April 10, Star Wars remains one of the most financially successful films of all time.

On July 21, while still in current release in 38 theaters in the U. Following the release of the Special Edition in , [] Star Wars briefly reclaimed the North American record before losing it again the following year to Titanic.

The film was met with critical acclaim upon its release. In his review, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "an out-of-body experience," compared its special effects to those of A Space Odyssey , and opined that the true strength of the film was its "pure narrative.

Murphy of Variety described the film as "magnificent" and said George Lucas had succeeded in his attempt to create the "biggest possible adventure fantasy" based on the serials and older action epics from his childhood.

When Star Wars opened in the UK, stating that Lucas's earlier films were better, Derek Malcolm of The Guardian concluded that it "plays enough games to satisfy the most sophisticated.

The film continues to receive critical acclaim from modern critics. Its consensus states in summary, "A legendarily expansive and ambitious start to the sci-fi saga, George Lucas opened our eyes to the possibilities of blockbuster filmmaking and things have never been the same.

Gene Siskel , writing for the Chicago Tribune in , said, "What places it a sizable cut above the routine is its spectacular visual effects, the best since Stanley Kubrick 's I doubt that anyone will ever match it, though the imitations must already be on the drawing boards.

The film garnered numerous accolades after its release. The original Star Wars trilogy is considered one of the best film trilogies in history.

However, he said that his story material for Star Wars was too long for a single film, prompting Lucas to split the story into multiple films. As the stories unfolded, I would take certain ideas and save them I kept taking out all the good parts, and I just kept telling myself I would make other movies someday.

The film has spawned a series of films consisting of three trilogies including the original film , anthology films and an extensive media franchise called the Star Wars expanded universe including books , television series, computer and video games , and comic books.

However, many bootleg copies exist, and the special has consequently become something of an underground legend.

A radio drama adaptation of the film was broadcast on the American National Public Radio network in It also featured scenes not seen in the final cut of the film, such as Luke Skywalker's observation of the space battle above Tatooine through binoculars, a skyhopper race, and Darth Vader's interrogation of Princess Leia.

The radio version was originally considered to be part of the official Star Wars canon , [] [] but has since been supplanted by revised canonical narratives.

Star Wars and its ensuing film installments have been explicitly referenced and satirized across a wide range of media. Hardware Wars , released in , was one of the first fan films to parody Star Wars.

Contemporary animated comedy TV series Family Guy , [] Robot Chicken , [] and The Simpsons [] have produced episodes satirizing the film series.

Star Wars , together with Lucas, is the subject of the documentary film The People vs. George Lucas that details the issues of filmmaking and fanaticism pertaining to the film franchise and its creator.

The iconic weapon of choice of the Jedi , the lightsaber , was voted as the most popular weapon in film history in a survey of approximately 2, film fans.

Approximately mailboxes across the country were also designed to look like R2-D2. The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new, high-concept genre for filmmakers to build upon.

Jackson used the concept for his production of The Lord of the Rings trilogy to add a sense of realism and believability.

Some critics have blamed Star Wars , as well as Jaws , for ruining Hollywood by shifting its focus from "sophisticated" films such as The Godfather , Taxi Driver , and Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy.

Stackpole , James Luceno ja Sean Williams. New Jedi Orderin tapahtumat alkavat 25 vuotta Yavinin taistelun jälkeen.

Ne kertovat toisesta galaksista saapuneen Yuuzhan Vong -lajin hyökkäyksestä Tähtien sodan galaksiin. Kirjasarjan aikana kuolee useita merkittäviä Tähtien sota -hahmoja.

Sarja päättyy teokseen The Unifying Force 30 vuotta Yavinin taistelun jälkeen. Jedi Knight -peleistä tuttu Kyle Katarn , joka varasti Kuolemantähden piirustukset Imperiumilta ja joka voitti taistelussa ja surmasi Jerecin, Darth Vaderiakin voimakkaamman pahan jedin ja joka myös voitti ja tappoi Desannin ja kymmeniä voimakkaita pimeyden jedejä, Imperiumin sotilaita ja palkkasotureita, ja joka on Luke Skywalkerin jediakatemiassa opettajana, auttaa uutta tasavaltaa New Jedi Orderissa taistelussa Yuuzhan Vong -lajia vastaan on myös pääsankarina Star Wars Dark Forces kirjassa, joka ei nimestä huolimatta perustu samannimiseen Tähtien sota -peliin.

Tähtien sodasta on myös julkaistu monia tietoteoksia, kuten elokuvissa ja Expanded Universessa esiintyvistä avaruusaluksista, aseista ja tekniikasta erittäin yksityiskohtaisesti kertova Essential Guide of Vessels and Vehicles.

Ensimmäiset Tähtien sota -sarjakuvat julkaisi Marvel Comics vuosina — Archie Goodwin ja Al Williamson piirsivät myös sanomalehdissä julkaistuja Tähtien sota -sarjakuvastrippejä vuosina — Dark Horse Comicsin sarjakuvia julkaisi Suomessa vuosina — Egmont Kustannus , mutta niiden julkaiseminen lopetettiin lukijoiden vähäisyyden vuoksi.

Lisäksi Jalava on julkaissut kolme albumia Star Wars-sarjakuvastrippejä Käärmemestarit , Petturin peli ja Jedin kosto [61]. Tähtien sota -aiheisia videopelejä on julkaistu vuodesta lähtien on yli kappaletta.

Pelien joukossa on niin ammunta-, seikkailu-, strategia- kuin roolipelejäkin. Yksi tunnetuimpia pelejä on vuonna julkaistu Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic -roolipeli, joka voitti yli 40 erilaista pelipalkintoa.

Parhaiten myynyt Tähtien sota -peli on vuonna julkaistu Star Wars: Battlefront. Tähtien sota -peliksi voidaan lukea myös vuonna julkaistu Lego Star Wars: The Video Game jatko-osineen, joissa liikutaan Lego -hahmoiksi muutetuilla Tähtien sota -hahmoilla.

Yksi Tähtien sodan keskeisimmistä teemoista on perinteinen hyvän ja pahan välinen taistelu. Tähtien sota on saanut vaikutteita esimerkiksi aasialaisista wuxia -elokuvista, roomalaisesta mytologiasta ja Akira Kurosawan samurai -elokuvista.

Yhdeksi Tähtien sodan tavaramerkeistä on muodostunut jokaisessa sarjan elokuvista käytetty kuvitteellinen ase, valosapeli. Muita leluksi päätyneitä ovat myös sarjaan pohjautuvat toimintafiguurit sekä pahuuden valtiaan Darth Vaderin musta maski.

Muita merkityksiä luetellaan täsmennyssivulla. Tähtien sodan teemasivu. Pääartikkeli: Luettelo tähtien sodan planeetoista.

Pääartikkeli: Tähtien sodan oheismateriaali. Pääartikkeli: Tähtien sota -videopelit. Pääartikkeli: Luettelo Tähtien sodan näyttelijöistä.

Viitattu 9. Viitattu 1. Viitattu Wenner Media LLC. But it wasn't added to the crawl until twitter. Icons: Intimate Portraits. December 4, Starlog Del Rey, So I said, 'All I want to do is tell a story of what happened'.

So the mandate was to start from scratch. November 7, Viitattu November 25, Wikimedia Commonsissa on kuvia tai muita tiedostoja aiheesta Tähtien sota.

Tähtien sota Imperiumin vastaisku Jedin paluu. Pimeä uhka Kloonien hyökkäys Sithin kosto. Rogue One Solo. The Clone Wars. The Mandalorian. Ensimmäinen ritarikunta Galaktinen Imperiumi Galaktinen tasavalta Itsenäisten aurinkokuntien konfederaatio Jediritarikunta Kapinaliitto Sithien sääty Uusi tasavalta Vastarinta.

Kuolemantähti laseraseet valosapeli. Kloonisodat Galaktinen sisällissota Ensimmäisen ritarikunnan ja Vastarinnan sota. Voima fysiikka kielet.

George Lucas Han ampui ensin Lucasfilm näyttelijät. Chewbacca-puolustus Jedismi Star Wars -päivä 4. Luokka : Tähtien sota.

Piilotetut luokat: Kotoistettuja päivämääriä sisältävät artikkelit Elokuviin liittyvät artikkelit Seulonnan keskeiset artikkelit.

Star Wars Wikipedia Star Wars (Domark). Aus CWiki. Zur Navigation springenZur Suche springen. Star Wars (Domark). Das neue Buch ist seit April erhältlich und räumt mit dem Star Wars-Kanon auf. Jedis, Klonkrieger und Ewoks in diversen Trilogien – als "Star Wars“-Neuling ist es nicht leicht, sich zurecht zu finden. Wir ordnen die Filmreihe. Weiss [ ] Zoey 101 Quinn, mais ils doivent finalement se retirer du projet [ 99 ]. Archived from the original on April 24, Archived from the original on November 23, Voiman käyttäjillä on yliluonnollisia kykyjä kuten telekinesiaennustaminen ja mielenhallintaja he voivat myös tehostaa fyysisiä kykyjään kuten nopeuttaan ja refleksejään ; nämä kyvyt vaihtelevat henkilöstä riippuen ja kehittyvät harjoittelun avulla. Star Wars: Clone Wars Animationsserie. Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved March 23, Diese Art der Produktion, bei der es sich Das Supertalent Wiederholung um eine TV-Serie mit Erzähler handelt, der das Geschehen auf dem Bildschirm beschreibt, wurde von Rezensenten scharf kritisiert. Entertainment Weekly7.

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Wie werden Bewertungen berechnet? Ende April gab Disney bekannt, dass das erweiterte Universum nicht mehr zum offiziellen Kanon gehöre Family Guy Star Wars Kinox unabhängig unter dem Sammelnamen Legends fortbestehe. Das erweiterte Universum entwickelte sich auch durch Comics, es begann im Januar mit Star Wars 7. Palpatine bietet Kylo Ren jedoch eine gigantische Flotte von Sternenzerstörern, die über die gleiche Technologie Serien Smartphone Stream die Todessterne verfügen, Poltergeist Film Wiedererrichtung des Imperiums, der Letzten Ordnungan unter der Bedingung, dass er Rey One Livestream Ard solle; dabei offenbart er ihm zwei Dinge: Rey ist die Enkelin des Imperators. Kylo Ren, wie sich Ben Solo inzwischen nennt, sucht seinen Avengers Gemeinsam Unbesiegbar Staffel 3 Stream Meister, um ihn zu töten. A-Star-Wars-Story -Filme. Sie sucht ihn auf Snokes Schiff auf, um ihn davon zu überzeugen, zur Seite des Widerstands zu wechseln.

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The Tumblr-4chan Wars In: PC Games. Dazu marschiert er mit Klontruppen — der Armee der Better Call Saul Episodenguide — in den Jedi-Tempel ein und erobert diesen. Bei ihrer Flucht begegnen sie Kylo Ren. Dadurch ermöglichen sie es einem Kampfgeschwader der Rebellen, die Kampfstation zu zerstören. Dort schreiben Kitchen Impossible Download Fans statt Wikipedia-Textexperten, Leute, Blindspot Online Stream Deutsch sich auch mit den kleinsten Nebenrollen auskennen. Er erwog, bis zu Im Glaskäfig Stream Filme zu produzieren. Des Weiteren ist Snoke ein von Palpatine erschaffenes Werkzeug; Palpatine war also von Beginn an hinter den Entwicklungen des aktuellen Konflikts zwischen Widerstand und erster Ordnung sowie hinter Kylos Visionen, die diesen zur dunklen Seite führten. Auf den Blair Witch 2019 Movie4k gebe es nur homogene Gruppen; Unterschiede zwischen verschiedenen Angehörigen derselben Spezies seien ausgelöscht, sofern es sich nicht um Menschen handele.

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Amazon , abgerufen am In: The Huffington Post. Ballantine Books, , S. In: Vanityfair. In: Movieweb. In: The New York Times.

August englisch. In: Time. Januar , abgerufen am In: Comicbookmovie. In: Wired. November , abgerufen am Abrams bereut, die kommende Episode nicht mehr zu verfilmen.

Ziff Davis , Dezember , abgerufen am September englisch. Juli In: Das Erste. Michael Wiese Productions, , S. THX , archiviert vom Original am 6.

März ; abgerufen am In: DigitalMovie. Archiviert vom Original am Dezember ; abgerufen am Burgschmiet, , S. Oxford University Press, , S.

University of Wisconsin Press, , S. In: Random House Books. Abgerufen am Übersetzt von Wolfgang Hensel. In: comicbook. August , abgerufen am Juni , abgerufen am In: The Washington Post.

April , abgerufen am Associated Press , abgerufen am Januar englisch. BBC , In: Cinefacts. Juli , abgerufen am In: PC Games. Computec Media , Dezember In: Animation World Network.

In: Dark Horizons. Januar , archiviert vom Original am September ; abgerufen am In: Cinemablend. In: Filmstarts.

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Januar, abgerufen am 9. Juni englisch. In: Moreau , S. Peter Lang, , S. In: Time Magazine. Archiviert vom Original am 5. Juni ; abgerufen am Open Court, , S.

Lulu, , S. Dezember englisch. Wetmore Jr. McFarland, , S. Sullivan Hrsg. Individualism and Intertextuality in the Star Wars Trilogies.

In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. In: derStandard. In: Esquire. Scarecrow Press, , S. In: Zeit Online.

In: Chicago Sun-Times. In: Die Zeit. Februar , abgerufen am 4. Februar , abgerufen am In: San Francisco Examiner.

Dezember , abgerufen am 6. In: Cinema Crazed. Mai , abgerufen am 6. In: The Daily Telegraph. In: Bloomberg. In: Los Angeles Times. In: San Francisco Chronicle.

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Box Office Mojo, abgerufen am Oktober englisch. In: Die Welt. In: Fortune. Statistic Brain Research Institute, 1. In: insidekino. Januar In: Lumiere — Datenbank über Filmbesucherzahlen in Europa.

Amazon , abgerufen am 8. In: InsideKino. Juli englisch. Abgerufen am 3. Juni , abgerufen am 3. In: Digital Spy.

Nat Mags , 4. In: Chicago Tribune. In: The Independent. In: Das Blättchen Nr. British Broadcasting Corporation , In: The Sydney Morning Herald.

In: Western Standard. In: NZHerald. NZME Publishing, CNN , 4. Time , And other galaxy-shaking enigmas. In: Cincemablend. April , abgerufen am 9.

In: Polygon. In: GameStar. Webedia , August , abgerufen am 7. In: Nerdist. Mai , archiviert vom Original am Mai ; abgerufen am In: StarWars. Juli , abgerufen am 1.

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Mai , abgerufen am 2. ILMxLab, In: Der ReZensionÄr. März Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Ansichten Lesen Quelltext anzeigen Versionsgeschichte.

Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Commons Wikinews Wikiquote. Star Wars: Das Erwachen der Macht.

Star Wars: Die letzten Jedi. Star Wars: Der Aufstieg Skywalkers. Irvin Kershner. Richard Marquand. Howard G.

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Ultimately, the general population goes along with the idea That's the issue I've been exploring: how did the Republic turn into the Empire?

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Kaminski, Michael []. The Secret History of Star Wars. Originally, Lucas envisioned the planet of Tatooine , where much of the film would take place, as a jungle planet.

Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines to scout locations; however, because of the idea of spending months filming in the jungle would make Lucas "itchy", the director refined his vision and made Tatooine a desert planet instead.

When principal photography began on March 22, , in the Tunisian desert for the scenes on Tatooine, the project faced several problems. Taylor said, "you couldn't really see where the land ended and the sky began.

It was all a gray mess, and the robots were just a blur. But George saw it differently, so we tried using nets and other diffusion. He asked to set up one shot on the robots with a mm, and the sand and sky just mushed together.

I told him it wouldn't work, but he said that was the way he wanted to do the entire film, all diffused. Filming began in Chott el Djerid , while a construction crew in Tozeur took eight weeks to transform the desert into the desired setting.

Kenny Baker , who portrayed R2-D2, said: "I was incredibly grateful each time an [R2] would actually work right. Lucas chose Hotel Sidi Driss, which is larger than the typical underground dwellings, to shoot the interior of Luke's homestead.

After two and a half weeks of filming in Tunisia, [74] production moved to Elstree Studios , near London. It was also the only studio of its kind in Britain or America that could cater for nine large stages at the same time and allow the company complete freedom to use its own personnel.

Most of the crew considered the project a "children's film", rarely took their work seriously, and often found it unintentionally humorous.

Harrison Ford found it strange that "there's a princess with weird buns in her hair", and called Chewbacca a "giant in a monkey suit.

This would result in "a 'cut-out' system of panel lighting", with quartz lamps that could be placed in the holes in the walls, ceiling and floors.

His idea was supported by the Fox studio, which agreed that "we couldn't have this ' black hole of Calcutta. Lucas commissioned computer programmer Larry Cuba to create the animated Death Star plans shown at the rebel base on Yavin 4.

This was written with the GRASS programming language , exported to a Vector General monitor and filmed on 35 mm to be rear-projected on the set.

It is the only computer animation in the original version of the film. Lucas selected the location as a potential filming site after seeing a poster of it hanging at a travel agency while he was filming in Britain.

This inspired him to send a film crew to Guatemala in March to shoot scenes. While filming in Tikal, the crew paid locals with a six pack of beer to watch over the camera equipment for several days.

While shooting, Lucas rarely spoke to the actors, who believed that he expected too much of them while providing little direction.

His directions to the actors usually consisted of the words "faster" and "more intense". A lot of actors don't mind—they don't care, they just get on with it.

But some actors really need a lot of pampering and a lot of feedback, and if they don't get it, they get paranoid that they might not be doing a good job.

Ladd offered Lucas some of the only support from the studio; he dealt with scrutiny from board members over the rising budget and complex screenplay drafts.

Kurtz said that "it came out to be like 9. Under the new system, the project met the studio's deadline. During production, the cast attempted to make Lucas laugh or smile, as he often appeared depressed.

At one point, the project became so demanding that Lucas was diagnosed with hypertension and exhaustion and was warned to reduce his stress level.

Moreover, Mark Hamill 's car accident left his face visibly scarred, which restricted re-shoots. Star Wars was originally slated for release on Christmas ; however, its production delays pushed the film's release to mid When Lucas watched Jympson's rough cut for the first time, he disliked what he saw.

Rinzler wrote that "Jympson's selection of takes was questionable, and he seemed to be having trouble doing match-cuts. He commented: "Unfortunately it didn't work out.

It's very hard when you are hiring people to know if they are going to mesh with you and if you are going to get what you want.

In the end, I don't think he fully understood the movie and what I was trying to do. I shoot in a very peculiar way, in a documentary style, and it takes a lot of hard editing to make it work.

Richard Chew considered the film to have been cut in a slow, by-the-book manner: scenes were played out in master shots that flowed into close-up coverage.

He found that the pace was dictated by the actors instead of the cuts. Hirsch and Chew worked on two reels simultaneously. Jympson's original assembly contained a large amount of footage which differed from the final cut of the film, including several alternate takes and a number of scenes which were subsequently deleted to improve the narrative pace.

The most significant material cut was a series of scenes from the first part of the film which introduced Luke Skywalker.

These early scenes, set in Anchorhead on the planet Tatooine, presented the audience with Luke's everyday life among his friends as it is affected by the space battle above the planet; they also introduced the character of Biggs Darklighter , Luke's closest friend who departs to join the rebellion.

There were too many story lines to keep straight: the robots and the Princess, Vader, Luke. So we simplified it by taking out Luke and Biggs.

As a result, the film was more "leisurely paced". After viewing a rough cut, Alan Ladd likened the early Anchorhead scenes to " American Graffiti in outer space.

The company had spent half of its budget on four shots that Lucas deemed unacceptable. Lucas inspired ILM by editing together aerial dogfights from old war films, which enhanced the pacing of the scenes.

During the chaos of production and post-production, the team made decisions about character voicing and sound effects. Sound designer Ben Burtt had created a library of sounds that Lucas referred to as an "organic soundtrack.

The lightsaber sound effect was developed by Burtt as a combination of the hum of idling interlock motors in aged movie projectors and interference caused by a television set on a shieldless microphone.

Burtt discovered the latter accidentally as he was looking for a buzzing, sparking sound to add to the projector-motor hum.

Lucas and Burtt created the robotic voice of R2-D2 by filtering their voices through an electronic synthesizer. Darth Vader's breathing was achieved by Burtt breathing through the mask of a scuba regulator implanted with a microphone.

In February , Lucas screened an early cut of the film for Fox executives, several director friends, along with Roy Thomas and Howard Chaykin of Marvel Comics who were preparing a Star Wars comic book.

The cut had a different crawl from the finished version and used Prowse's voice for Darth Vader. It also lacked most special effects; hand-drawn arrows took the place of blaster beams, and when the Millennium Falcon fought TIE fighters , the film cut to footage of World War II dogfights.

Spielberg, who said he was the only person in the audience to have enjoyed the film, believed that the lack of enthusiasm was due to the absence of finished special effects.

Lucas later said that the group was honest and seemed bemused by the film. In contrast, Ladd and the other studio executives loved the film; Gareth Wigan told Lucas: "This is the greatest film I've ever seen" and cried during the screening.

Lucas found the experience shocking and rewarding, having never gained any approval from studio executives before. Lucas had planned to rework a confrontation scene between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt in Mos Eisley Spaceport by compositing a stop-motion animated model of Jabba to replace the actor Declan Mulholland , but with time and money running out, Lucas reluctantly decided to cut the scene entirely.

The sequence was later re-instated in the Special Edition with a computer-generated version of Jabba. Williams had worked with Spielberg on the film Jaws , for which he won an Academy Award.

Lucas believed that the film would portray visually foreign worlds, but that the musical score would give the audience an emotional familiarity; he wanted a grand musical sound for Star Wars , with leitmotifs to provide distinction.

Therefore, he assembled his favorite orchestral pieces for the soundtrack, until Williams convinced him that an original score would be unique and more unified.

However, a few of Williams's pieces were influenced by the tracks given to him by Lucas: the "Main Title Theme" was inspired by the theme from the film Kings Row , scored by Erich Wolfgang Korngold ; [93] and the track "Dune Sea of Tatooine" drew from the soundtrack of Bicycle Thieves , scored by Alessandro Cicognini.

The American Film Institute 's list of best film scores ranks the Star Wars soundtrack at number one. According to Lucas, different concepts of the film were inspired by numerous sources, such as Beowulf and King Arthur for the origins of myth and religion.

The influence of The Hidden Fortress can be seen in the relationship between C-3PO and R2-D2, which evolved from the two bickering peasants, Tahei and Matashichi, and a Japanese family crest seen in the earlier film is similar to the Imperial Crest.

Star Wars also borrows heavily from another Kurosawa film, Yojimbo There are also thematic parallels, including the freedom fight by a rebel army against an empire, and politicians who meddle behind the scenes.

Tatooine is similar to the desert planet of Arrakis from Frank Herbert 's Dune series. Arrakis is the only known source of a longevity spice ; Star Wars makes references to spice in "the spice mines of Kessel", and a spice freighter.

In passing, Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru are "moisture farmers"; in Dune , dew collectors are used by Fremen to "provide a small but reliable source of water.

The Death Star assault scene was modeled after the World War II film The Dam Busters , in which Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers fly along heavily defended reservoirs and aim bouncing bombs at dams, in order to cripple the heavy industry of Germany's Ruhr region.

In addition, the sequence was partially inspired by the climax of the film Squadron , directed by Walter Grauman , [] in which RAF de Havilland Mosquitos attack a German heavy water plant by flying down a narrow fjord to drop special bombs at a precise point, while avoiding anti-aircraft guns and German fighters.

Clips from both films were included in Lucas's temporary dogfight footage version of the sequence. The opening shot of Star Wars , in which a detailed spaceship fills the screen overhead, is a reference to the scene introducing the interplanetary spacecraft Discovery One in Stanley Kubrick 's seminal film A Space Odyssey.

The earlier big-budget science fiction film influenced the look of Star Wars in many other ways, including the use of EVA pods and hexagonal corridors.

The Death Star has a docking bay reminiscent of the one on the orbiting space station in While the film was in production, a logo was commissioned from Dan Perri , a title sequence designer who had worked on the titles for films such as The Exorcist and Taxi Driver This logo design was originally conceived to follow the same perspective as the film's opening crawl.

In the end, Perri's logo was not used for the film's opening title sequence, although it was used widely on pre-release print advertising and on cinema marquees.

The logotype eventually selected for on-screen use originated in a promotional brochure that was distributed by Fox to cinema owners in This brochure was designed by Suzy Rice , a young art director at the Los Angeles advertising agency Seiniger Advertising.

On a visit to ILM in Van Nuys, Rice was instructed by Lucas to produce a logo that would intimidate the viewer, and he reportedly asked for the logo to appear "very fascist " in style.

Rice's response to her brief was to use an outlined, modified Helvetica Black. Lucas signed off on the brochure in between takes while filming inserts for the Mos Eisley Cantina scene.

Gary Kurtz was impressed with Rice's logo and selected it over Perri's design for the film's opening titles, after modifying the letter W to flatten the pointed tips originally designed by Rice.

This finalized the design of one of the most recognizable logos in cinema design, although Rice's contribution was not credited in the film.

For the US release in , 20th Century-Fox commissioned a promotional film poster from the advertising agency Smolen, Smith and Connolly.

They used the freelance artist Tom Jung who was given the brief of "good over evil. Some Fox executives considered this poster "too dark" and commissioned the Brothers Hildebrandt , a pair of well-known fantasy artists , to rework the poster for the UK release.

Fox and Lucasfilm subsequently decided that they wanted to promote the new film with a less stylized and more realistic depiction of the lead characters.

Producer Gary Kurtz turned to the film poster artist Tom Chantrell , who was already well known for his prolific work for Hammer horror films , and commissioned a new version.

Charles Lippincott was the marketing director for Star Wars. As 20th Century-Fox gave little support for marketing beyond licensing T-shirts and posters, Lippincott was forced to look elsewhere.

He secured deals with Marvel Comics for a comic book adaptation, and with Del Rey Books for a novelization.

A fan of science fiction, he used his contacts to promote the film at the San Diego Comic-Con and elsewhere within science-fiction fandom.

While initially only being released in a limited theatrical run, Star Wars was an unprecedented success for 20th Century-Fox, soon becoming a blockbuster hit and expanding to a much wider release.

It would eventually see many theatrical and home video re-releases. However, fewer than 40 theaters ordered the film to be shown.

In response, the studio demanded that theaters order Star Wars if they wanted the eagerly anticipated The Other Side of Midnight based on Sidney Sheldon 's novel by the same name.

Star Wars debuted on Wednesday, May 25, , in fewer than 32 theaters, and eight more on Thursday and Friday. Kurtz said in , "That would be laughable today.

Spielberg disagreed, and believed Star Wars would be the bigger hit. Lucas proposed they trade 2. Fox initially had doubts if Star Wars would emerge successful.

While Fox requested Mann's Chinese Theatre , the studio promised that the film only needed two weeks. Having forgotten that the film would open that day, [] he spent most of Wednesday in a sound studio in Los Angeles.

When Lucas went out for lunch with Marcia, they encountered a long line of people along the sidewalks leading to Mann's Chinese Theatre, waiting to see Star Wars.

Francis Ford Coppola , who needed money to finish Apocalypse Now , sent a telegram to Lucas's hotel asking for funding. The film was a huge success for 20th Century-Fox, and was credited for reinvigorating the company.

Within three weeks of the film's release, the studio's stock price had doubled to a record high. After the screening, the audience was silent, leading him to fear that the film would be unsuccessful.

Ladd was reassured by his local contacts that this was a positive reaction considering that in Japan, silence was the greatest honor to a film, and the subsequent strong box office returns confirmed its popularity.

After two weeks William Friedkin 's Sorcerer replaced Star Wars at Mann's Chinese Theatre because of contractual obligations; Mann Theatres moved the film to a less-prestigious location after quickly renovating it.

News reports of the film's popularity in America caused long lines to form at the two London theaters that first offered the film; it became available in 12 large cities in January , and other London theaters in February.

Star Wars was re-released theatrically in , , and , [] with the subtitle Episode IV — A New Hope being added in The film was digitally remastered with some altered scenes in for a theatrical rerelease, dubbed the "Special Edition.

In , Lucas announced that all six previously released Star Wars films would be scanned and transferred to 3D for a theatrical release, but only 3D versions of the prequel trilogy were completed before the franchise was sold to Disney in The texts Episode IV and A New Hope were first published on a title page for the film's script in the book The Art of Star Wars , [a] and added to the opening crawl in re-releases.

The retronymic inclusion of subtitles brought the film into line with the introduction to its sequel, The Empire Strikes Back , which was released in bearing the designation "Episode V".

This version of the film runs minutes. The Special Edition contains visual shots and scenes that were unachievable in the original release due to financial, technological, and time constraints; one such scene involves a meeting between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt.

Star Wars required extensive recovery of misplaced footage and restoration of the whole film before Lucas's Special Edition modifications could be attempted.

It was discovered that in addition to the negative motion picture stocks commonly used on feature films, Lucas had also used Color Reversal Internegative CRI film, a reversal stock subsequently discontinued by Kodak.

CRI proved to deteriorate faster than negative stocks did, although it theoretically was of higher quality, as it saved two generations an interpositive followed by an internegative , where employed.

Because of this, the entire composited negative had to be disassembled, and the CRI portions cleaned separately from the negative portions.

Once the cleaning was complete, the film was scanned into the computer for restoration. In many cases, entire scenes had to be reconstructed from their individual elements.

Digital compositing technology allowed the restorers to correct for problems such as misalignment of mattes and "blue-spill. By , this copy had been transferred to a 2K scan, now available to be viewed by appointment.

The final issue of the original theatrical release pre-Special Edition to VHS format occurred in , as part of "Last Chance to Own the Original" campaign, available as part of a trilogy set and as a standalone purchase.

The films were digitally restored and remastered, and more changes were made by Lucas. The trilogy was re-released on separate two-disc limited edition DVD sets from September 12 to December 31, , and again in a limited edition tin box set on November 4, ; [] the original versions of the films were added as bonus material.

The release was met with criticism as the unaltered versions were from the non- anamorphic LaserDisc masters and were not re-transferred using modern video standards.

The transfer led to problems with colors and digital image jarring. All six Star Wars films were released by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment on Blu-ray Disc on September 16, in three different editions, with A New Hope available in both a box set of the original trilogy [] [] and with all six films on Star Wars: The Complete Saga , which includes nine discs and over 40 hours of special features.

New changes were made to the films, provoking mixed responses. Fox released A New Hope for digital download on April 10, Star Wars remains one of the most financially successful films of all time.

On July 21, while still in current release in 38 theaters in the U. Following the release of the Special Edition in , [] Star Wars briefly reclaimed the North American record before losing it again the following year to Titanic.

The film was met with critical acclaim upon its release. In his review, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "an out-of-body experience," compared its special effects to those of A Space Odyssey , and opined that the true strength of the film was its "pure narrative.

Murphy of Variety described the film as "magnificent" and said George Lucas had succeeded in his attempt to create the "biggest possible adventure fantasy" based on the serials and older action epics from his childhood.

When Star Wars opened in the UK, stating that Lucas's earlier films were better, Derek Malcolm of The Guardian concluded that it "plays enough games to satisfy the most sophisticated.

The film continues to receive critical acclaim from modern critics. Its consensus states in summary, "A legendarily expansive and ambitious start to the sci-fi saga, George Lucas opened our eyes to the possibilities of blockbuster filmmaking and things have never been the same.

Gene Siskel , writing for the Chicago Tribune in , said, "What places it a sizable cut above the routine is its spectacular visual effects, the best since Stanley Kubrick 's I doubt that anyone will ever match it, though the imitations must already be on the drawing boards.

The film garnered numerous accolades after its release. The original Star Wars trilogy is considered one of the best film trilogies in history.

However, he said that his story material for Star Wars was too long for a single film, prompting Lucas to split the story into multiple films.

As the stories unfolded, I would take certain ideas and save them I kept taking out all the good parts, and I just kept telling myself I would make other movies someday.

The film has spawned a series of films consisting of three trilogies including the original film , anthology films and an extensive media franchise called the Star Wars expanded universe including books , television series, computer and video games , and comic books.

However, many bootleg copies exist, and the special has consequently become something of an underground legend. A radio drama adaptation of the film was broadcast on the American National Public Radio network in It also featured scenes not seen in the final cut of the film, such as Luke Skywalker's observation of the space battle above Tatooine through binoculars, a skyhopper race, and Darth Vader's interrogation of Princess Leia.

The radio version was originally considered to be part of the official Star Wars canon , [] [] but has since been supplanted by revised canonical narratives.

Star Wars and its ensuing film installments have been explicitly referenced and satirized across a wide range of media. Hardware Wars , released in , was one of the first fan films to parody Star Wars.

Contemporary animated comedy TV series Family Guy , [] Robot Chicken , [] and The Simpsons [] have produced episodes satirizing the film series.

Star Wars , together with Lucas, is the subject of the documentary film The People vs. George Lucas that details the issues of filmmaking and fanaticism pertaining to the film franchise and its creator.

The iconic weapon of choice of the Jedi , the lightsaber , was voted as the most popular weapon in film history in a survey of approximately 2, film fans.

Approximately mailboxes across the country were also designed to look like R2-D2. The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new, high-concept genre for filmmakers to build upon.

Jackson used the concept for his production of The Lord of the Rings trilogy to add a sense of realism and believability. Some critics have blamed Star Wars , as well as Jaws , for ruining Hollywood by shifting its focus from "sophisticated" films such as The Godfather , Taxi Driver , and Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy.

They marched backward through the looking-glass. In an article intended for the cover of the issue, Time ' s Gerald Clarke wrote that Star Wars is "a grand and glorious film that may well be the smash hit of , and certainly is the best movie of the year so far.

The result is a remarkable confection: a subliminal history of the movies, wrapped in a riveting tale of suspense and adventure, ornamented with some of the most ingenious special effects ever contrived for film.

American Film Institute []. Star Wars was voted the second most popular film by Americans in a nationwide poll conducted by the market research firm, Harris Interactive.

Reputable publications also have included Star Wars in their best films lists: in , Empire magazine ranked Star Wars at No. Lucas's original screenplay was selected by the Writers Guild of America as the 68th greatest of all time.

In addition to the film's multiple awards and nominations, Star Wars has also been recognized by the American Film Institute on several of its lists.

Little Star Wars merchandise was available for several months after the film's debut, as only Kenner Products had accepted marketing director Charles Lippincott's licensing offers.

Kenner responded to the sudden demand for toys by selling boxed vouchers in its "empty box" Christmas campaign. Television commercials told children and parents that vouchers within a "Star Wars Early Bird Certificate Package" could be redeemed for four action figures between February and June The novelization of the film was published as Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker in December , six months before the film was released.

The credited author was George Lucas, but the book was revealed to have been ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster. Marketing director Charles Lippincott secured the deal with Del Rey Books to publish the novelization in November By February , a half million copies had been sold.

Marvel Comics also adapted the film as the first six issues of its licensed Star Wars comic book , with the first issue sold in April Roy Thomas was the writer and Howard Chaykin was the artist of the adaptation.

Like the novelization, it contained certain elements, such as the scene with Luke and Biggs, that appeared in the screenplay but not in the finished film.

Lucasfilm adapted the story for a children's book-and-record set. Each page of the book contained a cropped frame from the movie with an abridged and condensed version of the story.

The script was adapted by E. Jack Kaplan and Cheryl Gard. An audio CD boxed set of the Star Wars radio series was released in , containing the original radio drama along with the radio adaptations of the sequels, The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi.

A sequel, The Empire Strikes Back , was released in In , the final installment of the trilogy, Return of the Jedi , was released.

A prequel trilogy was released between and , and following Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm, a sequel trilogy was released between and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see A New Hope disambiguation. Theatrical release poster by Tom Jung. Lucasfilm Ltd. Release date. Running time.

He was eligible for either of the two roles: Chewbacca or Darth Vader. He chose the former because he wanted to play a hero; English actor David Prowse took the other.

It's the flotsam and jetsam from the period when I was twelve years old. All the books and films and comics that I liked when I was a child.

The plot is simple—good against evil—and the film is designed to be all the fun things and fantasy things I remember. The word for this movie is fun.

Star Wars has no points of reference to Earth time or space, with which we are familiar, and it is not about the future but some galactic past or some extra-temporal present, it is a decidedly inhabited and used place where the hardware is taken for granted.

Main article: Star Wars soundtrack. See also: Star Wars sources and analogues. War films such as The Dam Busters and Squadron , which used aircraft like the Avro Lancaster top and the Mosquito bottom , respectively, were inspirations for the battle sequences.

On opening day I I said, 'You know a lot about the film. See also: Changes in Star Wars re-releases. What makes the Star Wars experience unique, though, is that it happens on such an innocent and often funny level.

It's usually violence that draws me so deeply into a movie—violence ranging from the psychological torment of a Bergman character to the mindless crunch of a shark's jaws.

Maybe movies that scare us find the most direct route to our imaginations. But there's hardly any violence at all in Star Wars and even then it's presented as essentially bloodless swashbuckling.

Instead, there's entertainment so direct and simple that all of the complications of the modern movie seem to vaporize.

See also: Cultural impact of Star Wars. AFI Years AFI's Years Hearn , p. British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on January 27, Retrieved May 25, Archived from the original on July 9, Box Office Mojo.

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Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved November 9, The Illustrated Star Wars Universe. New York: Bantam Books.

Hachette Filipacchi Media U. Archived from the original on May 8, Retrieved October 3, Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved August 6, Archived from the original on May 20, Archived from the original on January 11, Archived from the original on December 25, Star Wars Aficionado Magazine.

Archived from the original on February 26, Retrieved July 8, The Huffington Post. November 8, Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved May 8, Retrieved May 9, Gawker Media.

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Star Wars Wikipedia

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2 Kommentare

  1. Malagor

    die Auswahl bei Ihnen schwer

  2. Tojakus

    wahrscheinlich ja

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